Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Bibliography Essays (801 words) - Science And Technology In France

Bibliography Marie Curie by Vicki Cobb Marie Curie Chemistry September 17, 2012 6 th Period Marie Curie was born Maria Sklodowski November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Poland. Marie Curie was born to both parents being school teachers that had high expectations of their five children. When Marie was nine years old, her mother died of tuberculosis. To help with the family's expenses, the Sklodowskis took in student boarders. Along with all of her brothers and sisters, Marie graduated with the highest grades in her class. However, Marie could not attend the men-only University of Warsaw. To continue her studies, Marie attended a "floating university" that held informal classes. Marie and her sister Bronya wanted to expand their knowledge and earn an official degree, but they weren't financially able to do so. The sisters worked out a deal that consisted of Marie working to support Bronya while she was in school , and then Bronya would do the same for Marie after she finished her studies. Marie worked as a tutor and governess for about five years. I n her spare time, she studied and read about chemistry, physics and math. In 1891, Marie moved to Paris and enrolled at the Sorbonne (University of Paris). Marie was dedicated to her studies; however, she had very little money and survived on bread and tea. In 1893, Marie completed her master's degree in physics and earned a degree in mathematics the next year. In the same year, Marie was asked to do a study on various types of steel and their properties. She needed a lab to work in and someone introduced her to a French physicist, Pierre Curie. Marie and Pierre were a brilliant pair that soon developed feelings for one another. The two scientists were both dedicated and devoted to working together and discovering new things. Marie was interested in the work of a French physicist, Henri Becquerel, who discovered X-rays. Marie began her own experiments with uranium rays and discovered that the rays remain constant no matter what condition or form uranium is in. She theorized that the rays came from the element's atomic structure. Marie named the phenomena radioactivity. In 1897, Marie and Pierre had a daughter, Irene. However, the birth of their first child did not slow down their studies. In fact, Pierre put aside his own studies to help Marie with her experimenting with radioactivity. In 1898, the two discovered a new radioactive element that they named polonium. Marie got the name from her native country, Poland. They also found another radioactive material in th e pitchblende, and they named it radium. In 1903, Marie was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize in physics. She won this honor along with Pierre and her idol Henri Becquerel for their work on radioactivity. Because of their win, the Curies developed an international reputation for their discoveries, and they used the prize money to continue their research. In 1904, their second daughter, Eve, was born. In 1906, Marie and her two daughters suffered the loss of Pierre after he accidentally stepped in front of a horse-drawn wagon. After his death, Marie took over Pierre's teaching job at the Sorbonne. Once again, Marie made history by being the university's first female professor. In 1911, Marie won her second Nobel Prize, in chemistry, for her discovery of radium and polonium. Marie also became the first scientist to win two Nobel Prizes. When World War 1 started in 1914, Marie focused her time to helping the cause; she improved the use of the portable X-ray machine. After the war, Marie traveled to the United State s to raise funds to buy radium and establish a research institute in Warsaw. Marie's long years of working with radioactive materials took a toll on her health. On July 4, 1934, Marie Curie died at Sancellemoz Sanatorium in Passy, France of aplastic anemia. This was caused by the exposure of radiation. Marie Curie is the most famous scientist of all time and has won numerous honors. In 1995, Marie and her husband Pierre's remains were interred in the Pantheon in Paris (the final resting place of many of France's greatest scientists). Marie Curie became the first

Friday, March 6, 2020

Insurance Analysis in Kenya Essays

Insurance Analysis in Kenya Essays Insurance Analysis in Kenya Essay Insurance Analysis in Kenya Essay Introduction Insurance in Kenya is known to have been in existence for over sixty years now with the first insurance companies believed to have been owned by British insurers during the colonial times. The industry is governed by the Insurance Act and regulated by the Insurance Regulatory Authority. The Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) was created by the Insurance (Amendment) Act of 2006 and came into operation on 1st May 2007. The Authority was established with the mandate of regulating, supervising and developing the insurance industry. Before the establishment of IRA, these functions were performed by the Department of Insurance in the Ministry of Finance. (IRA 2010) As per AKI Insurance Industry Report for the year 2009, there were 44 licensed insurance companies, majority offering non-life insurance business only, nine of them life insurance business while fifteen were composite (both life and non life). There were 137 licensed insurance brokers, 21 medical insurance providers (MIP’s) and 3,076 insurance agents. Other licensed players included 106 investigators, 57 motor assessors, 18 loss adjusters, 2 claims settling agents, 5 risk managers and 26 insurance surveyors. The industry’s contribution to the country’s GDP is still low although there has been notable growth for the last seven years. The gross written premium by the industry was Kshs 64. 47 billion compared to Kshs 55. 19 billion in 2008, representing a growth of 16. 8 %. The gross written premium in non-life insurance was Kshs 43. 11 billion (2008: Kshs 36. 89 billion) while that from life insurance business was Kshs 21. 36 billion (2008: Kshs 18. 30). Non-life insurance premium grew by 16. 8 % while life insurance premium and contributions from deposit administration business grew by 16. %. The combined industry profit after taxation increased by 14. 4% to Kshs. 4. 29 billion compared to Kshs 3. 85 billion in 2008. In 2009 the industry paid Kshs. 20 billion for claims for general insurance business and as benefits to life policy holders. (AKI 2009) Penetration of insurance in the year 2009 was 2. 84% compared to 2. 63% in 2008. Life insurance recorded a penetration ratio o f 0. 94% (2008:0. 87%) while that of non-life insurance was 1. 90% (2008:1. 76%). Only half a million Kenyans, about 1% of the total population are said to have take up life insurance. Up to 80% of Kenyans have no insurance cover due to widespread poverty and a false belief that insurance covers are mainly for the rich. However, based on the recent industry statistics, there is an emerging trend that Kenyans are indeed sensitive to the need for protection against an uncertain risky future. According to Swiss Re (World Insurance Report2009), South Africa is the leading African country in the insurance industry, accounting for 90% of the total volume, followed by Morocco then Egypt. Growth in non life insurance business in Africa was sluggish at 0. 4%. The report pointed out that Africa produced only 1. 4% of the global premium volume in 2009. South Africa’s life insurance premium fell by 16%, premium Growth in Morocco remained flat at 0. 1%, while in Egypt premiums shrank by 5%. There are currently five major players in the insurance industry in Kenya. These include The Co-Operative Insurance Company of Kenya Ltd. (CIC), UAP Financial Services Ltd, APA, Jubil ee Insurance and Resolution Health East Africa. Majority of these insurers operate nationally with a few operating regionally. Some international insurers have entered the Kenyan market through mergers with already existing players. Two of the leading companies were formed through a merger between two existing insurance companies, for instance, APA was formed after a merger between Apollo and Pan-Africa General divisions. Others form partnerships with small insurance companies to cover non-traditional policies like political violence. Solutions need to be developed to address new risks. Insurers have finally recognized the growing needs of the Kenyan people. Agricultural insurance is one of the new policies designed for farmers located in the different parts of the country to shield them from financial loss caused by unfavourable weather conditions. The Cover is provided for livestock, specific crops and poultry losses. Payment of premiums is quick and easy for the farmers, premium payments are done through a specially designed mobile application and in the event of a loss, and farmers are paid through the same method. Medical insurance is divided into three segments, one health cover operated by employers, the second individual cover and the third coverage operated by the government targeting low income earners through the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF). Health insurers have raised concern about clients who view cover value as expensive as opposed to the benefits. That’s why insurers are coming up with affordable schemes. Medical e-cards that users top up, similar to prepaid airtime scratch cards, any member of the family can use the e-card as long it has money. Due to poor health infrastructure in the country, rural hospitals have inadequate facilities and are understaffed, thereby making people to travel to major city for treatment; this has also contributed to the rise in health insurance cost. Many insurers have shied away from HIVAIDs insurance because of the risks involved. Travel cover is currently being offered by only two insurers, one of them has partnered with Kenya’s main airline company to provide a package that covers loss of luggage, flight delays, cancellation, medical emergency and personal liability. The premium cost is based on traveller’s destination and length of stay. Claims are made online or when the client returns from their trip. The cover can be acquired when buying a ticket or through travel agents. Higher learning has become very expensive both for local and overseas universities, forcing parents to borrow heavily from banks to pay university fees. Education policy is definitely necessary for most parents who want their kids to get good education. The industry is definitely on the growth stage and most insurers are strengthening their market share by positioning themselves as affordable insurance providers offering new products for the untapped regions such as younger and older people. Industry analysis PESTE Political Economic Social Technological Political Factors The political violence experienced in 2007 resulted in major losses for businesses and individuals mainly because current insurance companies were not offering cover for such risks. The unrest has made insurers quickly come up policies to cover these risks. Motor insurance is reported to have doubled in the last six months; the government through the Insurance Regulatory Board has increased the premiums in a move to counter fraud and fake claims known to have forced over ten motor insurance companies to shutdown due to losses incurred through claims. Economic Factors High tax imposed on life and health insurance has made policies to be expensive and affordable to a small percentage of the population. The insurance industry is pushing for tax deductible premiums paid on life and health insurance to be tax deductible from chargeable income up to 30 percent of the gross income. Income Tax Act Cap 470, Section 19(5) and (6) Poverty and unemployment are still the biggest challenges facing the industry. With no source of income for many youth and women, the last thing that this demographic prioritize is insurance. This makes it very hard for the growth and development of the insurance companies because of the low number of clients which represents the few employed people who in turn can be able to pay for the insurance policies provided by the insurance companies. This situation is further compounded by the rise of HIV and AIDS which adversely affects the working class that forms a critical target group for insurance services. The rising levels of poverty and high cost of living has reduced disposable income hence relegating insurance matters to the back burner. This is as a result of people first meeting their basic needs first before considering other expenses, which include insurance policies. Perhaps the government can relax some of the strict regulations present for private investors to encourage investment both locally and internationally. This may increase the number of the insurance companies in the country allowing more space for competition thus in the long run lowering the costs of insurance policies to the advantage of the consumers. High inflation rates has increased operation costs , raised the cost of living and therefore, made it difficult for the citizens to be able to afford insurance policies due to the current turbulent economic conditions that has led to an increase in policy prices. Fraud / Corruption largely affect the development of the insurance sector in Kenya. It has undermined the economic development of the country by generating considerable distortions and inefficiency. This makes the companies to constantly perform poorly and thus calls for the introduction of anti money laundering which helps to curb the vice. Social Factors In order to boost penetration of insurance in Kenya, vigorous awareness campaigns should be used to educate people on the importance of insurance. Policy covers should be packaged with the end-user in mind, for example selling agricultural insurance cover to non-farmers is useless. Product development should be flexible to allow the ever changing needs of the dynamic insurance industry. oIncrease in lifestyle diseases – oIlliteracy levels spread Insurance knowledge and risk management to clients looking to reduce losses, advice clients how to manage their finances and how they can help minimize risks oInadequate health facilities Cultural values – harambee culture oDemographic changes oNegative perception on insurance, bad publicity fraud, fake claims Technological Factors Mobile phone use has eased the communication between clients and the insurance companies in the sense that if any of the two parties want to contact the other, it becomes very simple. Increase use of the Internet has enabled customers to access information, submit claims and compare policies from different providers. Environment Climatic changes Emergence of informal settlements. Legal Lengthy legislation process. Corruption and fraud. Lack of structured compensation scheme. Porters 5 Competitive Forces Analysis 1. Rivalry among existing players. The insurance industry is becoming highly competitive. The difference between one insurance company and another is usually not that great. As a result, insurance has become more like a commodity an area in which the insurance company with the low cost structure, greater efficiency and better customer service will beat out competitors. Insurance companies also use higher investment returns and a variety of insurance investment products to try to lure in customers. In the long run, were likely to see more consolidation in the insurance industry. Larger companies prefer to take over or merge with other companies rather than spend the money to market and advertise to people. 2. Threat of New Entrants. Mergers and strategic partnerships are on the rise to introduce products with low premium rates. While the industry leaders have already positioned themselves there are still untapped areas such as the youth and the older generation. Government requires all insurers to maintain a solvency margin of about USD 12,476, or 5 percent of assets in excess of liabilities. This might prevent new players from entering the market because of the high margins required 3. . Availability of Substitutes. Since the existing products in the market are similar, consumers will look for an affordable product to suit their needs. Some policies have many substitutes others have few for instance motor insurance is offered by most of the insurer while health is offered by a selected few. Most large insurance companies offer similar suites of services. Wh ether it is auto, home, commercial, health or life insurance, chances are there are competitors that can offer similar services. In some areas of insurance, however, the availability of substitutes is few and far between. Companies focusing on niche areas usually have a competitive advantage, but this advantage depends entirely on the size of the niche and on whether there are any barriers preventing other firms from entering. 5. Bargaining Power of Buyers. Individuals looking for a good cover obviously have a lower bargaining power compared to corporate customers. 6. Power of Suppliers. Foreign investors are starting to have an interest in this industry. Since insurance is still growing, existing experts in the industry tend to hop from one company to another looking for better pay

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Physiological effects of recreational drugs on the human body Essay

Physiological effects of recreational drugs on the human body - Essay Example A fine line exists between recreational and dangerous, illegal drugs and often, these two terms are interchanged. Most of the time, the line drawn in terms of legality, abuse and risk of use involved ("Recreational drug use", 2006). History tells us that drug use has been around for quite a long time now. Caffeine, tobacco and alcohol along with natural drug derivatives such as poppy, marijuana and hemp have been consumed by our ancestors since the time their use has been discovered (Burger, 1995; Burger, n.d.). Modern recreational drugs include ecstasy, cocaine and LSD among others. Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is one of the most common recreational drugs used in the U.S. and other parts of the world. Marijuana leaves often referred to it's street names "mary jane", "weed", "grass" etc. is usually rolled and smoked in cigarette form (called a "joint" or "nail") or in a pipe (known as a "bong"). The active ingredient in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) which starts a series of pleasurable reactions in the brain referred to as a "high" (National institute on drug abuse, 2004). Smoking a joint usually has no effect on the first use, but its effects are manifested after the second or third use. It affects short term memory but does not hinder physical coordination and there are no reported case yet of overdose ("Pocket guide to recreational drugs", 1995). From 2000 to 2002 marijuana use rose up to 24% in the U.S. alone and is considered to be the 3rd most abused drug reported in hospital emergency cases (National institute on drug abuse, 2004). THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) the active ingredient found in marijuana affects the brain differently than other drugs. It increases the secretion rate of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure. Dopamine in return affects the limbic system, the area of the brain associated with emotion and behaviour control (Young, 1997). THC circulates fast from the lungs to the bloodstream as a joint is smoked (National institute on drug abuse, 2004). As THC passes thru the brain, it connects to specific areas called cannaboid receptors on the neural cells. Not all neural cells have the same amount of cannaboid receptors and often a large amount of these type of receptors are found in brain areas associated with pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement (Herkenham et al, 1990; National institute on drug abuse, 2004). Effects of marijuana use on the heart Although none has ever died from marijuana related cardiac failure, persons with arteriosclerosis or propensity to heart failure may develop complications from smoking marijuana. Smoking a joint induces tachycardia (brisk rise in heartbeat) along with increase in heart failure similar to when a person experiences stress. These complications can vary in effect and severity (Young, 1997). Effects of marijuana use on the lungs In 1990, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) reports: "No difference in prevalence of chronic cough, sputum production or wheeze was noted between the marijuana and tobacco smokers (included within their study), nor were additive effects of combined smoking of tobacco and marijuana on the prevalence of acute or chronic

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Impact of Teachers on Agriculture Research Paper

Impact of Teachers on Agriculture - Research Paper Example The research will highlight effects of teachers on this discipline (Agbaje, Martin & Williams, 2001). Statement of the Problem It is imperative to have an effective education system, which will ensure improved students’ performance. The effectiveness of an education system derives from the ability of teachers’ to give knowledge to the students. The teachers will have key implications onto agricultural education. Consequently, it is vital to make a research on the implications of teachers in this discipline, which is an integral constituent of the entire education system. Understanding the implications of teachers on agricultural education is fundamental, since it will provide findings which can enable the appropriate authorities improve the education system. Teachers may have huge impact on agricultural education. Therefore, it is critical to understand them so that the authorities can adopt appropriate policy measures, which will ensure improvement in teaching of this discipline (Byrne, 1998). The current performance in this discipline is poor. Hence, it is vital that tutors embrace appropriate teaching strategies, which, in turn, will improve students’ performance. Purpose of the Study   Teachers have the core duty of passing on knowledge to students. Therefore, they are central factor in the students’ learning process. The teaching methods will influence the learning process significantly. Therefore, it would be crucial to understand what teaching strategies can improve students’ performance in agricultural education. Additionally, the research will evaluate not only the teaching strategies, but also their application in inculcating agricultural knowledge. This research will evaluate several aspects on the implications of teachers in this discipline. Therefore, this research will circumnavigate the core roles of the teacher in inculcating agricultural knowledge in students (Croom, 2003). Objectives of the Study This resea rch seeks to accomplish certain objectives, which include; I. Determine the strategies that teachers use in agricultural education II. Determine the impact of such strategies on the students III. Determine whether teachers’ strategies are relevant in agricultural education. IV. Determine whether the teachers have adequate agricultural knowledge to satisfy the students’ knowledge requirements. Research Questions I. What strategies do teachers use in agricultural education? II. What is the impact of teachers’ strategies on students? III. Are teachers’ teaching strategies relevant to agricultural education? IV. Do teachers have adequate agricultural knowledge to satisfy the students’ requirements? Definition of Terms Teaching strategies-The teaching measures that agricultural teachers have embraced in passing knowledge to students. Curriculum - an outline of what students should learn in a certain discipline over a given period. Each subject will norm ally have a curriculum that a teacher should follow. Quality assurance - this term refers to a set of measures that seek to ensure goods or services meet a certain quality threshold. Limitation of the Study The domain of this research will be large since the impacts of teachers on agricultural education will be multifaceted. This means the implications may be educational, psychological, and discipline concerns. Therefore, this

Monday, January 27, 2020

Market share of banglalink

Market share of banglalink 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Origin of the Report This report is the accomplishment of the class assignment program as required for the completion of the PGDBA TERM 2 course at College of Technology London.Project for the program was assigned by the institutions course teacher Carole Still 1.2 Objective of the Report Objective of this report is to give a general idea about the organization, business and operations of Banglalink, a mobile telecommunication company and to explore information about the market position, Marketing strategy and measures to improve the product and services of Banglalink. 1.3 Company Overview in Brief Banglalink was formed in 2005 by the Orascom Telecom Holding (OTH) under the registered name â€Å"Banglalink. Before that it was called Sheba Telecom Ltd. In February 10, 2005 the company changed its name to Banglalink, as a part of global think process. In Bangladesh Banglalink is a very fast growing telecommunication company. The major products and services of the company are listed below: General prepaid Ladis first prepaid Misti Kamala Upper Class Professional SME and SOHO Package Corporate post paid package. The company has customer care center in Dhaka and Chittagong. The corporate Head Office is located at 28, Gulshan, Land View Tower, Gulshan Circle-2, Dhaka. Banglalink is a subsidiary of Orascom Telecom Holding (OTH) which is a leading mobile telecommunications company operating in nine emerging markets in the Middle East, Africa and South Asia. Established in 1998, the company has acquired nine operating licenses in this region. With nearly 520 million people and an average mobile telephony penetration of only 5% falling under these licenses, Orascom Telecom has positioned itself as a leading telecommunications conglomerate in the emerging markets of this region. The organization has managed to build an amazing subscriber base of around 15 million in just a short span of six years by the end of 2005. 1.4 Methodology Both primary and secondary sources of information were used for this report. For the organization part secondary sources were the major source, whereas for the project part primary sources of data had used. Primary data were collected through personal interviews to target groups, which include Banglalink employees, distributors and customers. Open ended, close ended, structured questionnaire were used for collecting information at different stages of the report for different groups. For example, interviews with employees for organization part included open‑ended nonstructural questions, but for project part close‑ended structured questions were the majority. However, most of the questions were direct and non‑disguised in nature. Stratified random sampling method was used in the survey. Sample size was 75. Data analysis techniques used for the project part included graphical presentations, frequency distributions, percentage ranking, cross tabulations and normal distributions. Data was analyzed by MS Excel. 1.5 General Limitations Resource Constraints Efforts have been made to accomplish the project according to the objectives. But as the research team consisted of only one member, therefore, it was difficult to cover areas in detail. Moreover, there was constraint of other resources also. Time Limitation The type of study required a detail interview of customers and retailers. Difficulty was faced in getting access to this different group of people. Manpower Limitations This type of work requires extensive fieldwork. Due to lack of adequate manpower it was very difficult to work with large sample. Efforts have been made to accomplish the project in accordance with its objectives. But as the research team it consisted of only one member, therefore, there were difficulties to cover more details. 1.6 Report Preview The report is divided into two different parts. First part of the report is the organization part, which will give a general picture of the organization Banglalink as a whole, including the businesses it does. The other part is the project part, is assigned by the organization to fulfill the requirement of the internship as well as the need of the company. The topic is â€Å"Analysis of Marketing Strategy, Market Share and Future Action Plan of Banglalink. In this regard, four packages namely; Ladis First, Misti Kamala, Upper Class and SOHO-SME were considered. VIEW OF BANGLALINK 2.1 General Information The company aims to make a difference in the lives of the people. Its vision is to â€Å"understand peoples needs best and will create and deliver appropriate communication services to improve peoples life and make it easier†. Their mission is, therefore, to reduce the total cost of ownership of buying and using a mobile phone. Moreover, to achieve this vision, the company has established some values that it tries to instill in its employees. They want their employees, and the company as a result, to be straight forward, reliable, innovative and, above all, passionate. As Sheba Telecom, the worst performing network operator in the industry, the company had only 30,000 subscribers. To dispel this image, OTH had re-branded Sheba as Banglalinkâ„ ¢ in an attempt to give it a completely new image. Finally, they have successfully achieved their goal. With that kind of a reputation at its disposition, the Banglalinkâ„ ¢ management has placed one of the highest priorities on improving its network. In this respect, they have installed state-of-the-art equipment from Siemens and Huawei and brought in over 1,000 people, including experts, from 15 countries around the world to set up the required infrastructure. The system took a record of four months (less than half the normal time) to build. In 2005 alone, Orascom plans to invest $120 million, earmarking close to another $300 million for future investments. 2.2Vision Banglalink understands peoples needs best and will create and deliver appropriate communication services to improve peoples life and make it easier 2.3 Values They have the following four underlying organizational values. Straight Forward Reliable Innovative Passionate 2.4.1Marketing The Marketing team also consists of several teams, which includes PR Communications, VAS, Loyalty Retention and International Roaming. The teams all report to Omer Rashid, the Marketing Director. The Loyalty Retention team is responsible for the designing of the special offers launched from time to time in an attempt either to increase customer base or to increase ARPU. The VAS division is responsible for the continuously adding valuable services to provide a complete solution to existing customers, for example, for making conference calling ring tone/logo downloads possible. These two teams together are in charge of making the customers experience with our network more satisfying. PR Communication is responsible for designing and developing all promotional materials for the marketing of any new product/package and any other activities. They coordinate and work directly with the advertising agency and other vendors. While other companies have an entire department for promotions and branding, at Banglalinkâ„ ¢ this division, consisting of only a handful of people is responsible for this task. Although Banglalinkâ„ ¢ does not have any International Roaming facility now, this team is working on developing the service soon for post-paid subscribers. 2.4.2Human Resources Aside from recruiting and training employees, the HR department is also responsible for disseminating internal communication to all users and in the process of developing compensation packages for its employees, such as medical insurance under the group plan, life insurance and running several activities such as the Vaccination Program for all. Training activities are continuously taking place to develop and hone the skills knowledge of the personnel, such as the English Language MS Project Courses for selected employees and conducting a GSM Orientation session for all employees, especially the Sales, Marketing Customer Care Departments who have to deal with customers. 2.4.3Customer Care Rumana Reza, the only female director in the organization, is the head of the Customer Care department. This too is segmented, consisting of the Customer Care division itself, and then there is Care Line, Credit Management Unit and the Support Services Unit. They are responsible for handling customer queries and providing solutions to any problems faced by the subscribers. While the above departments are all located in the headquarters in Gulshan 2, the Customer Care people are divided between the head office and the Call Center (Star Tower) between Gulshan-1 and Gulshan-2. 2.4.4T Billing The IT Billing department, as is evident from the name, is in charge of all the hardware, software and program requirement of the other departments. They also generate the bills for the company subscribers (post-paid). 2.4.5Administration Apart from the Administration division, the department also consists of the Legal division and the Project Management Office. 2.4.6Finance The finance department is the largest department at the head office with an entire floor devoted to their needs. They consist of the Procurement Cash Management divisions among many others. 2.5 Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats (SWOT) Analysis 2.5.1 Strengths Huge capital investment: As mentioned earlier, Orascom Telecom has great plans for Banglalinkâ„ ¢. Wherever OTH has gone, it has become the industry leader there or is on its way there. A possible explanation is that the organization kicks of its companies with a huge capital outlay to help get rid of or solve all the hitches. In 2005 alone, Orascom will invest $180 million, earmarking close to another $300 million for future investments. Expertise: As mentioned earlier, OTH had over 1000 people, including 15 experts, working on the infrastructure to get the company started in a record four months. These experts, with several years of experience in the telecom industry, now help in the day-to-day operation of the business. Tight control over sales process: Many people in the industry do not know the sales process, since its is dealt by their distributors and dealers. However, with the Direct Sales Booth, the people involved know the sales process intimately and are responsible for achieving the sales target and project implementation, thus giving the company a strong control over the process. 2.5.2 Weaknesses Network: The greatest weakness of Banglalinkâ„ ¢ and also the most widely criticized service is its network. While the reception is quite clear when the user is out of doors, once inside, the reception breaks up. The worst part is the company has entered a market where the industry leader has been reigning supreme for years now and people are bound to compare the leaders services with Banglalinks performance, even if it is fairly new to the market. People tend to forget that it had taken the leader more than three years since its start to provide its subscribers with a decent connection; hence it is with Grameens present performance that Banglalinkâ„ ¢ is compared and sure enough the latter does not fare well. Unorganized structure: OTH bought off Sheba (Pvt.) Limited last September and immediately started changing the structure of the loosing concern. They are constantly recruiting people, adding/deleting levels to the organogram. Thus, the environment is constantly chaotic, with many people not knowing who to contact or whom to report to and who is responsible for what. This takes away time and energy away from the selling activities. Inadequate human resources: While many people drop off their CVs at the office on a regular basis, finding sufficient numbers of people, with the correct qualifications, has become hard to find. Hence, a handful of people are doing the work of many leading to back log of work. Bureaucracy: The new management is trying to create a system where each individual is responsible and accountable for his duties. While it is a good idea, it has also created a bottleneck at the administrative financial level, where work gets stuck and stays stuck until all papers are properly signed and taken care of. 2.5.3 Opportunities Re-invent itself: As mentioned earlier, the company created a strong buzz when it entered the market. Previously an unknown entity, many people now know of the existence of Orascom Telecom. They have done their studies and know that OTH stands for success. Thus, the people are ready to see Banglalinkâ„ ¢ as a total different entity from its predecessor and are willing to give it another chance to re-invent its image in the market; not an issue to be taken lightly by the company. 2.5.4 Threats Price wars: While in the true sense it had been Banglalinkâ„ ¢ who started this price war with its M2M package, it has created a series of price cuts that many cannot afford. After eight years of high call charges, Grameen has finally decreased its rates. BTTB has also entered this battle with Teletalk Bangladesh Limited. With free TT incoming and outgoing, this is sure to become popular once it gains access to other operators networks. 3.0 INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT 3.1 Background of the Study Bangladesh has one of the lowest tele-density and the lowest telephone penetration rates in the world and even in the South Asia. According to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) report, the telecommunication revenue as a percentage of the GDP is also low in Bangladesh compared to the other regional countries. Among the SAARC countries per 100 inhabitants Maldives has the highest tele-density while Bangladesh has the lowest. There are five telephone operators in Bangladesh at the moment. Among them one is Government owned telephone operator: Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB) and the other four are privately owned companies namely Grameen Phone Ltd. Telecom Malaysia International Bangladesh (TMIB) Sheba Telecom Ltd and Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Ltd. (PBTL). Banglalink is a subsidiary of Orascom Telecom Holding (OTH) which is a leading mobile telecommunications company operating in nine emerging markets in the Middle East, Africa and South Asia. Established in 1998, the company has acquired nine operating licenses in this region. With nearly 520 million people and an average mobile telephony penetration of only 5% falling under these licenses, Orascom Telecom has positioned itself as a leading telecommunications conglomerate in the emerging markets of this region. The organization has managed to build an amazing subscriber base of around 15 million in just a short span of six years by the end of 2004. The present situation of market share, marketing strategy and action plan of Banglalink is the basis of this study. 3.2 Problem Statement The problem statement of the research is, â€Å"analysis of marketing strategy, market share, future prospect and action plan of banglalink† 3.3 Scope of the Study The research is limited within the some selected product of Banglalink and it is confined in Dhaka city only. There are number of product of existing telecom operators having varied features. This study covered some fast moving products namely; Ladies first, Misti Kamala, Upper Class and SOHO-SME packages of Banglalink. 3.4 Limitations of the Study The area of the research was too scattered to reach conveniently for gathering information within the specified time of the internship. However efforts were made to limit the area of observation through sampling method and experience judgment. Target populations of the research were not enough knowledgeable to understand and explain the required information needed from them. The studies were carried out on four products namely ladies fast, upper class, orange sweated and ipack. The researcher scope was not enough to amalgamate the whole strategy including all products. 3.5 Exploratory Research To formulate research objectives an extensive measure to unearth the real situation was under taken in the form of exploratory research. The secondary data analysis and the pilot survey i.e. the interviews with the company people, dealers, retailers and customers were the major types of exploratory research that were followed to reach the research objectives. This research is based on qualitative method. After formulating the problem statement, a detailed background study was conducted. This background survey helped to determine the specific objectives. 3.5.1 Checklist Keeping the problem statement in view and the preliminary research being an unstructured one, a number of questions in the form of checklist had been formulated. This checklist had been the main tool for asking relevant questions to the primary data sources to formulate the operational definition of the problem statement and precisely find out the area of study. Perception of customers about different operators of Bangladesh and the selected products of Banglalink were found from the checklist. 3.5.2 Exploratory Research Findings From of exploratory research the following points were discovered: Banglalink made a huge splash in the Bangladesh mobile industry on February 12, 2005. Banglalink made the mobile service affordable to the general people at a cost of only Tk 3400, which is the lowest in the market. About 12% of the market share is occcupied by the Banglalink. Presently, Banglalink is selling SIM at a price of Tk. 132 only, which is the lowest in the industry. The Banglalink connections also allow subscribers 125% credit limit where all other counterparts allow only 100%. It means that a client can talk upto 125% of his deposit in case of postpaid connection. 55% of the customers expressed that strength of network is the prime factor for choosing a particualr mobile operators among the existing competitors. About 78% of present customer were satisfied with the service of Banglalink. Higherst stisfaction rate found among the GP subscribers. More than 30% of the total customers willing to switch Banglalink from other mobile operators. About 10% of the customers expressed that there is an assoiation between higher sales and lower call charge of Banglalink. 3.3 Research Objectives After considering all the relevant aspects research objectives are formulated as under: Broad Objective Broad objective of the present study is to have an idea about the marketing strategy of mobile telecommunication industry of Bangladesh to survive in the competitive world, especially in the case of Banglalink. Specific Objectives Specific objectives of the study are as follows: To explore the market share and position of Banglalink in the mobile industry of Bangladesh. To explore the business level marketing strategy of Banglalink. To assess the perception of customers toward the product of services of Banglalink. To explore the strength and weakness of Banglalink in comparison of other mobile operators. To explore the growth potentiality of Banglalink To explore the future action plan of Banglalink to be the market leader in the telecommunication industry. 3.7 Literature Review Review of related literature in any research is a necessity in the sense that it provides an opportunity for reviewing the stock of knowledge and information to the proposed research. These knowledge and information give a guideline in designing the future research problem and validating the new findings. With this end in view, literature and research works in line with the present study, were searched in the relevant libraries, research institutes, offices and websites (internet). attractive packages to the customers. A significant change has been taken place in the mobile telecommunication sector after launching the Banglalink in the industry. At this moment, all operators are trying to keep their products at the top position. Present study will help to identify the strategic competitiveness and pitfalls of Banglalink and to find out the new horizon to be the market leader in the industry. 4.0 RECOMMENDATIONS AND PROPOSALS 4.2 Recommendations It was found that few operators in the market are trying to meet the growing demand of the city dwellers need for communication. For the high demand of the mobile phone there are many unmeet demand are waiting to acquire. Banglalink has to run to meet those demand of customers by providing the product and services at a affordable and minimal price. People are gradually becoming informed about the value of information and understand the fact that timely access to the right information slants the balance of market information in their favor. Governments of developing countries in general and Bangladesh in particular, have to address this issue of increased basic telecommunication connectivity to keep its population in the fast track of economy. Finally researcher has suggested (Proposed) few points to make telecommunication industry healthy: It is better to Promote competition and investment by private firms. The company has to ensure access to advanced services in rural and high-cost areas. It has to ensure access to advanced services for schools and libraries also. Provide and promote education of what telecommunications and information services can do and how to use them. Banglalink has a threat of price war from its competitors. In fact, mobile telecommunication industry has tremendous competition. All operators are coming up with different attractive products and services. So, it has to consider the following point to be a market leader in future: Strengthening the network system. Expand the coverage as soon as possible. Launch less product rather than multiple products at tie. Add value to particular product. Reduce the call charge. Tariff should be user-friendly and comprehensive. Billing system should be improved. Improve the standard of advertisement. Advertisement should be more appealing. Spend money wisely to minimize the cost which leads to maximize the profit. 4.3 Conclusion With respect to the identification of the market position of Banglalink from the above study it can conclude that Banglalink possesses about 12% of the market share in the telecommunication industry. It was found from the study that 37% GP subscribers want to change because of call charge, 24% GP subscribers want to change for TT connection, 13% GP subscribers want to change for product features. 37% Aktel subscribers reason to change is network coverage, 26% respondents change for call charge, 21% respondents change for product features and rest respondents changes for TT, billing system etc. A large number of CityCell subscribers like 61% subscribers want to change for network coverage, 22% CityCell subscribers change for call charge, rest for other reasons. 71% Banglalink subscribers reason to change is network coverage, 8% Banglalink subscribers change for call charges Bibliography Books: Malhotra, Naresh K. Marketing Reseach, 5th Edition, Prentice-hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2000 Kotler PhilipChase, Marketing Management, Millennium Edition, Prentice-hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2000 Lesikar, Ramond V. Flatley, Marie E. Basic Business Communication: Skills for Empowering the Internet Generation, 10th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2006-2007. Fred R. David. â€Å"Strategic Management†, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall of India (PHI) Internet Resources:

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Eeoc Paper Essay

The purpose of this paper is to go over a lawsuit that was filled by the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The paper will cover who the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) is and their role in the lawsuit. It will go over whether or not the lawsuit promotes social change. The paper will also go over how the EEOC as well as other news groups released information about the case to the public. I will then give my take on how I would implement new strategies to make sure the problem does not come up in the workplace again. A description of the compliance issue that led to the lawsuit The lawsuit that I have chosen is about a company not hiring someone because of their race. Tyeastia Green sued Alliant Techsystems, Inc. (ATK) because they did not hire her due to her race. A recruiter for ATK initially told her that she had gotten the job, later ATK rejected her and hired a while male instead (â€Å"U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission†, 2012) . A brief Summary of the functions of the EEOC According to â€Å"U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission† (2012), â€Å"the EEOC is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person’s race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability or genetic information† (Aerospace and Defense Manufacturer Rejected Applicant on Racial Grounds, Federal Agency Charged). The EEOC investigates charges of discrimination against employers who are covered by the law. Their role is the fairly and accurately assess the allegations in the charge and make a finding. The EEOC also works to prevent discrimination before it happens by offering education and technical assistance programs. The EEOC’s role in this lawsuit The EEOC’s role in the lawsuit was to find out whether or not the claim was valid. Once they decided that the claim was valid, they tried to settle the charge in a pre-litigation settlement. Since ATK did not want to settle, the EEOC filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Minnesota (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2012). Whether or not this lawsuit promotes social change and reasons I do not believe that this lawsuit promotes social change. I believe this because I do not believe that this was a real discrimination due to Tyeastia Green’s race. According to Stych (2012), the recruiter asked her to take out her braids to appear more professional. Tyaestia did take out her braids but later put them back in before she got hired on. I believe that the company was not trying to discriminate against her. They asked her to do something to look more professional. The company does not have the right to tell her how she should wear her hair, but I do not believe they didn’t hire her because of her race. I think that they didn’t hire her because she didn’t comply with how they thought a profession person should look. A comparison of the EEOC press release to the news item The EEOC’s press release was not very informational. It did not give much detail on how the company discriminated against Tyeastia Green. The press release just said that ATK did not hire her because of her race. It also said that the company will pay $100,000 and furnish other relief to settle the race discrimination lawsuit filed by the EEOC (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2012). The article written by Ed Stych for the Minneapolis/ St. Paul Business Journal went into more detail on what happened that lead to the lawsuit being filed. The article said that a recruiter asked Tyeastia to take out her braids to look more professional and that they set up an interview with the company’s information technology director and asked that she came to that interview the same way, without the braids (Stych, 2012). What accounts for the differences? I think that the reason they are different is because the EEOC has a privacy policy where they are not allowed to release certain information about the case. Other news groups on the other hand do not have a privacy policy. They write as much as they know in their articles. The Business Journal wanted the public to know why the lawsuit was filed and what lead up to the lawsuit. Strategies for ensuring inclusion in multicultural workplace If I was a senior manager at ATK, I would make sure that I specified how I believe the company’s image is displayed properly. I would make sure that everyone would be treated equally. I would make sure that all of the managers make everyone feel at home in the workplace. I would give classes to the managers and the recruiters on how to prevent discrimination in the workplace. I would also make sure that the recruiters learn how to talk to people without discriminating against them. Conclusion This paper has gone over the lawsuit that was filed by the EEOC. It also went over who the EEOC is and what their role is in the lawsuit. It also went over how the EEOC’s press release and the Minneapolis/ St. Paul Business Journal articles different. I have learned that employers need to watch what they say and be more specific on how they say things to people as well. I think that if the recruiter has just explained better on why they did not want her to have her braids, things might have gone a little better. If I was Tyeastia, I would have waited until after my final interview to put the braids back in. They asked her to take them out and she did, then they asked her to come looking just like that to the meeting with the information technology director and she didn’t. I think that both parties are at fault in this situation. References U.S. Equall Employment Opportunity Commission. (2012). Retrieved from Stych, E. (2012). Mineapolis St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved from

Friday, January 10, 2020

On the Relationship between Literature, History, and Human Beings Essay

To assume that an object belongs to a particular set entails that an object possesses similar characteristics to all the other objects in the set. In most cases, two or more sets have a tendency to intertwine with one another since some objects in another set have similar characteristics to the objects in a different set. This intermingling of different objects with different characteristics is apparent in the field of literature. Literature here ought to be understood as a written art form that allows the creation of new worlds. Such a conception of literature is based on the assumption that literary texts are fluid and malleable in nature due to the vast meanings that may be attributed to their content. This view of literature is based on the Reader-Response Theory which assumes that literary texts may only exist within the reader’s consciousness (Murfin and Ray 426). Murfin and Ray claim, â€Å"With†¦ the literary work as a catalyst of mental events comes a redefinition of the reader†¦ (as) the passive recipient of those ideas that an author has planted in a text (427). The field of literature is thereby characterized by the intermingling of different objects with different characteristics since although some works adhere to a specific form, the meanings attributed to these works change in line with the reader’s conception of a their content. In line with this, the following discussion posits that all forms of literature, regardless of their form and content, are united with one another due to their dependence on the human mind. This is another way of stating that literature is connected to human existence due to its dependence on human production as well as on its dependence on human interpretation. Such an assumption is based on several propositions. First, literature, as an art form, reflects the social and political conditions during a particular period in history, whether on the period of its production or on the period of its reproduction. Second, the function of human consciousness in determining the meaning of a work is evident in both the author and the reader’s association of a meaning to the form and content of a text. Finally, the function of human consciousness in unifying not only human experience but also all forms and types of literary works is apparent as the production and reproduction of a work manifests the creation of new meanings and hence new ways of understanding a text. These assumption merely show that the production, reproduction, and reception of a literary work throughout history involves a dialectic process wherein a literary text serves as the main referent for the opposing meanings given to a specific event and? or concept located in a literary work. Eagleton specifies the interconnection between literature and history as she posits that the definition of the concept literature continually evolves along with the social and political conditions in a particular period in history. She claims, â€Å"[W]e can drop once and for all the illusion that the category â€Å"literature† is objective in the sense of being eternally given and immutable†¦Literature reflects†¦ the ways in which what we say and believe connects with the power-structure and power relations of the society we live in† (Eagleton 10-14). Eagleton emphasizes the dependence of the association of the values and meanings used in the analysis of literary works to a predominant belief in a particular period in history. A concrete example of this can be seen in the case of Gilman’s â€Å"A Yellow Wallpaper. † Gilman’s text was only considered as an important literary work in the later part of the 20th century which may be associated with the sociopolitical conditions that allowed the equality of both men and women and hence the recognition of woman writers and their works during that time. Another example of this is apparent in the distinction between Formalism and Modernism in literature. Formalists believe that all literary works can be analyzed in terms of their form (Eagleton 3). They argued that form precedes content as they conceived of the former as a mere expression of the later, that being â€Å"content was merely the ‘motivation’ of form† (Eagleton 3). As opposed to this, the Modernists argued that the content was more important than the form (â€Å"Brief Guide to Modernism†). The Imagists, a sub-group of Modernists, for example, wrote in free verse as opposed to the restrictive forms of sonnets or villanelles (â€Å"Brief Guide to Imagism†). This distinction between Formalism and Modernism shows the evolution of the concept literature. Given that no fixed meaning may be attributed to the term literature; one may claim that a fixed meaning was presented in relation to the term in the initial part of the discussion. It is important to note however that the meaning given to the term above merely emphasizes the fluidity of literature. Such is the case since a description of literary works as texts that enable the creation of new worlds merely provides a loose definition of the term as opposed to the rigid definition provided by the Formalists. In other words, the way literature is conceived in this discussion merely emphasizes the reader’s relationship to a work, which is the reader’s ability to identify new world or new meanings in the combination of a text’s form and content. Although the looseness of the definition specified above may seem to consider all forms of written works as literary texts, it is important to note that the definition is still grounded on what is considered to be an art form. Regardless of this definition, the point which is being emphasized here is the dependence of the term literature on the sociopolitical conditions of a period. As can be seen in the case of Gilman’s text as well as in the case of the Formalists and Modernists, the way one understands literature is dependent on the predominant beliefs during the period of a literary text’s production or a literary movement’s existence. With the relationship between literature and history mentioned above, it becomes evident why human consciousness occupies a primary role in determining the meaning of a literary work. Human consciousness provides the link between literature and history as the human mind interprets specific beliefs and associates them with the content of literary works. In the case of literary critics, the human mind interprets the predominant beliefs regarding the structure of objects in society and creates a connection between this order and the form and content of literary works. In other words, the human mind ascribes meanings to literary texts. In the same manner that human beings create a bridge between history and literature, literature also creates a bridge between human beings. This relationship between history, literature, and human beings can be seen in Albee’s â€Å"The American Dream† and DeLillo’s White Noise. In the case of Albee’s play, his discussion of the American dream not only shows the association of a specific male stereotype to the dream but its association to superficial ideals. The stereotype is apparent as the Young Man, which represents the American dream, is describes as a â€Å"clean-cut, Midwest farm boy type, almost insultingly good looking in a typically American way† (Albee 112). He was further described to possess a â€Å"good profile, straight nose, honest eyes, (and a) wonderful smile† (Albee 112). This description of the Young Man shows the dependence of his existence on a specific setup in society wherein â€Å"lights fill up†¦as he steps into†¦(a) room† (Albee 112). The Young Man’s existence, as a representation of the American dream, is dependent on a society wherein external appearance is lauded in comparison to a person’s character. Note for example that the Young Man is also described to be incapable of loving anyone else (Albee 115). He is thereby an individual who is devoid of establishing a loving connection with other human beings. By representing the Young Man’s existence to be dependent on a superficial society, Albee paves the way for different ways of reading the text. One, for example, may focus on the Young Man’s representation of the Hollywood ideal in America and its connection to the American dream. In addition, one may also focus on the Young Man’s superficial existence. Albee’s text, in this sense, is fluid since no specific interpretation of the work may be given. Its interpretation is dependent on the reader and? or audience of his play. In a similar manner, DeLillo’s White Noise is also a text open to interpretation. The text also discusses an aspect of life which is also common to all men, that being death. It is a truism that all human beings are bound to die. DeLillo’s novel associates death with the rapid developments caused by the electronic age. Consider, for example, his description of white noise in the following passage, â€Å"[T]raffic washes past, a remote and steady murmur around our sleep, as of dead souls babbling at the edge of a dream† (DeLillo 4). The novel’s title, White Noise, may be understood as a representation of death. Death, like white noise, is a sound that permeates human existence. They are both representations of the nothingness that lies outside of life and activity. Notice that it was only in the graveyard, as Jack was faced with the figures of the dead, that there was no mentioned of the white noise in Jack’s surroundings (DeLillo 71). White noise, in this sense, serves as a reminder of death. It is the sound that one hears before one encounters the death of one’s own body. In conjunction to the continuous technological developments in our world, white noise is a sound of reckoning for the possible end of the world itself. In both Albee’s play and DeLillo’s novel, one notes that both texts discuss certain universal themes. Albee’s play revolves around the theme of a country’s dream. DeLillo’s novel, on the other hand, revolves around the theme of death. Both of these are universal themes as they represent certain aspects of human experience that resounds throughout time. The relationship between literature, history, and human beings is thereby apparent in both texts as they themselves present an author’s view regarding a universal theme, one which will be experienced by all human beings throughout the existence of our race. Due to its universal character, these themes, and hence both texts which are grounded on these themes, will be interpreted in different ways by all those who will read them. Human consciousness thereby determines the meaning of a work as an author and a reader associates meanings to a work’s form and content. The universal themes of all literary works provide all human beings, regardless of the spatiotemporal conditions during their existence, with a common ground for understanding literary texts. It is partially due to these universal themes that the members of the current generation are able to find a connection with the works of authors who belong to a different generation. These themes however have been reinterpreted in line with the current generation’s experiences and conception of reality. This can be seen in Frosts’ â€Å"Stopping by Woods on a Rainy Evening† and Jacoby’s â€Å"The Diner. † In Frosts’ poem, one is presented with the theme of death as the poem’s persona ponders on the mysteries associated with it. He states, â€Å"The woods are lovely, dark, and deep.? But I have promises to keep, ? And miles to go before I sleep† (Poe). The persona, in this sense, attempts to ward off thoughts of death since he recognizes that life has a lot more experiences in store for him. Although Poe wrote this poem in the 1920’s, its theme continues to be found in contemporary works as can be seen in Jacoby’s â€Å"The Diner. † In the text, Jacoby speaks of another form of death, one that has been brought about by the artificial reality enabled by technological innovations. He claims, â€Å"Bright bright city lights†¦? I’ll take your pale and shadowed glow,? Whatever half-light path you show†¦? I feel so close to those in here, ? I share their loneliness and fear†¦? From the probing, searching nighttime† (Jacoby). In â€Å"The Diner,† the persona speaks of the death of human interaction caused by the alienating conditions in the modern world. In this world, although men are given the innovations that should have provided them with the chance to have longer periods of meaningful interaction with one another, the artificiality of their surroundings has led them to create artificial relationships with each other. The similarity of the theme of both Frost’s and Jacoby’s texts manifest how literature may serve as a tool for portraying similar themes whose meanings vary due to the new events and? or concepts which have been associated with it. Within this context, it is evident that all forms of literature are much more alike than disparate. Human consciousness has allowed the connection of all literary works as it has enabled the form of all literary texts to correspond with one another due to its relationship to the reader who continually participates in the active reinterpretation of literary works. As McEwan claims, â€Å"Literature flourishes along the channels of this unspoken agreement between writers and readers, offering a mental map whose north and south are the specific, and the general† (41). In this mental map, human minds throughout history interact in a dialectic dialogue with one another as they conceive, interpret, and reinterpret universal themes in literature. This dialogue allows the conception of literature as an art form that continually allows the creation of new worlds and new ways of perceiving reality. Works Cited â€Å"A Brief Guide to Imagism. † Poets. org: From the Academy of American Poets. n. d. Web. 15 May 2010. â€Å"A Brief Guide to Modernism. † Poets. org: From the Academy of American Poets. n. d. Web. 15 May 2010. Albee, Edward. The American Dream: and, The Zoo Story: Two Plays. New York: Plume, 1997. Print. DeLillo, Don. White Noise. New York: Penguin Books, 1985. Print. Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. Print. Frost, Robert. â€Å"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. † Poets. org: From the Academy of American Poets. n. d. Web. 15 May 2010. Gilman, Charlotte. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† and Other Stories. London: Courier Dover, 1997. Print. Jacoby, Peter. â€Å"The Diner. † Prof. Peter R. Jacoby’s Spring 2010 Web Site. San Diego Mesa College. n. d. Web. 15 May 2010. McEwan, Ian. â€Å"Literature, Science and Human Nature. † Human Nature: Fact and Fiction. Eds. Robin Headlam and Johnjoe McFadden. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006. 40-62. Print. Murfin, Ross and Supryia Ray. The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms. London: Bedford? St. Martin’s, 2009. Print.